Also known as "A'i-Kofán," the Cofán are an Indigenous people who live on both sides of the Ecuadorian-Colombian border. Ecuador's approximately 1,500 Cofán citizens reside in 13 communities, which range in size from more than 500 to less than 20 inhabitants. The communities are located along the Aguarico and San Miguel Rivers and their tributaries in the province of Sucumbíos. The everyday language of almost all Cofán individuals is A'ingae, an isolate with no known linguistic affinities. Cofán people practice a way of life based on hunting, fishing, gathering, and horticulture; the periodic sale of garden produce, forest products, handicrafts, and wage labor; and participation in culturally and environmentally focused tourism ventures. Oil extraction has contaminated much of this People's lands and rivers, and oil-related health problems are prevalent in Cofán communities.
The Siekopai are a small Upper Amazonian nation numbering less than 1500 in population. They once had an immense territory stretching around 7,000,000 acres from Ecuador into Colombia and Peru but have now been confined to 50,000 acres over 100 miles away from that ancestral territory. They speak Pai'koka, a Tucanoan language. Despite the distressing impacts of colonization, missionary activity, palm oil production, land invasion and extractive industries on their territory and way of life, they still endeavor to practice the rich shamanic culture for which they're renowned, along with their knowledge of medicinal plants.
This Indigenous people from the Amazonian Region of Ecuador (Napo, Orellana, and Pastaza Provinces) once maintained one of the most extensive territories of all the Indigenous Peoples of Amazonian Ecuador. The almost 2,000 Waoranis of the Amazon reside in their ancestral lands between the Curaray and Napo rivers and speak Waorani, a linguistic isolate not known to be related to any other language. In the last four decades, they have shifted from a hunter-gatherer way of life to mainly living in permanent forest settlements due to the impacts of logging, oil extraction, and colonist settlement.
This ancestral Indigenous people live in the Ecuadorian Amazon and Putumayo in Colombia and number less than 500 in population. The rubber boom and slave trade in the late 19th century have driven the Siona's massive displacement, and they are now sparsely settled in several communities. The Siona people used to sustain their families through hunting, fishing, small-plot farming and gathering. Today, the relentless pressure from colonialism and extractive industries has meant a loss of their rich culture and a loss of language, a Tucanoan language, among the younger generations. Today, many work in tourism ventures owned by outsiders.